Samanyu Raina

ORCID ID: 0009-0009-1050-808X

Research Project Title: Characterizing the Supersonic Micro-Nozzle Designs for Cold-Spray Applications

Supervisors/s: Dr Ashish Vashishtha (Principal), Dr Andrew Murphy (Co-Supervisor), Dr Dean Callaghan (Associate), Dr R. N. Raoelison (Adjunct/External)

Project Funding: President’s Research Fellowship Programme



  • Biography
  • Research Project Description
  • Publications and Outputs


Samanyu Raina has just started his PhD journey at SETU Carlow in the area of Micro Nozzles and Cold Sprays and is being funded through President’s Research Fellowship. He completed his B.Tech in Aerospace Engineering from SRM University, Chennai (2015-2019). He did his M.Tech in Aerodynamics from Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, India (2020-2022) and has experience in modelling and testing of Supersonic Jet Flows and Aeroacoustics. After his Master’s he was working at DRDL, Hyderabad as a CFD Engineer where he gained a thorough knowledge of modelling External Flow Problems of Flight Vehicles. He also has a keen interest in Thermodynamics, Aeroacoustics and Propulsion.

Research Project Description

Cold Spray technology has received a lot of attention from the additive manufacturing community over the past few decades, due to its ability to deposit material at low temperature via plastic deformation. The cold spray technology was initially developed for metal coating applications to enhance surface functionality and reduce erosion, corrosion, oxidation, and wear. In a small number of studies, the miniaturization of cold spray system was attempted by using nozzle dimensions of up to 1 mm, with typical low-pressure cold spray system, to increase its spatial resolution and increase its applicability from millimetre- to micron-scale metal deposition for precision electronic printing, creating very thin deposition etc. The CAD, numerical simulation and the experimental data will mainly be generated while designing and optimizing the advanced nozzle(s) for Cold-Spray Systems.

With the motivation of developing the micro-nozzle based cold-spray system the objectives of proposed work are:
1) Develop fabrication method for supersonic micronozzle optimum design of micro-scale low/high-pressure cold spray.
2) Set-up the measurement methods to characterize the designed nozzle.
3) Explore the deposition efficiency for various combination of metal and polymer substrates

Publications and Outputs

Raina, S., Rao, L.S., and Das, S., Flow field Studies of Over-expanded Supersonic Jets

  • Designed and manufactured a family of Basic and Scarfed Conical Convergent Divergent Nozzles for a Supersonic Free Jet
  • Shadowgraph Flow Visualisations along with Centreline and Transverse Pressure Measurements were conducted to identify the Unsteady Flow Features such as Potential Core Length, Mach Disks, Shear layers and Shock Structures
  • Acoustic Measurements were conducted in an Anechoic Chamber to Characterise and Identify the features of a Typical Acoustic Spectra pertaining from the Fabricated Nozzles
  • Attention Visualizations and Post Processing for the interpretability of results and various Contours such as FFT and Spectrogram were created using MATLAB
  • Numerical Simulations highlighted the various Instabilities which could be a potential source for Acoustics
  • Noise Reduction pertaining to Supersonic Nozzles was studied using Scarfed Nozzles and a positive feedback was observed


Saha, S., Raina, S., Sarkar, P., Nizami, M.A. and Malhotra, V., Aerodynamic Effects of an Electromagnetic Wing and Its Application for LEO Transportation.

(PATENT NUMBER: 202041029012)

  • Proposed and manufactured a new Aircraft Wing to test out the Performance Characteristics
  • An Experimental study was conducted to establish the relation between various energies associated with the wing such as Aerodynamic, Electromagnetic, Vibrations and Rotational
  • Wind Tunnel Experiments were conducted with high voltage electricity on the wing’s surface along with inducing Vibrations
  • Observed results were compared to a conventional wing; Electromagnetic Interactions alter the characteristics of a wing
  • Primary applications include Augmented Lift Control, Stall Recovery and Electric Shielding


Raina, S. and Malhotra, V., Feasibility and Spontaneity of Jetfans for Aircraft Fire Safety

  • Worked on a novel Fire Simulation Model in Fire Dynamics Simulator for Aircraft Fire Safety by exploiting contextual simulation information using a FORTRAN program to Simulate the Fire in different conditions in the Aircraft Vessel to stop and redirect the ’Rapid Fire Occurrence’
  • Created Attention Visualizations for interpretability of results and various Contours
  • A significant drop in the heat feedback of the Designed Fire showed zones of Recirculation and the Effectiveness of JetFans